Sunday, September 20, 2009

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මිනිසාගේ බාහිර කන,මැද කන හා අභය්‍යන්තර කන යනුවෙන් ඉතා පැහැදිලිව හදුනාගත හැකි ප්‍රධාන කොටස් තුනකි. අප බොහො විට කන යනුවෙන් හදුන් වන්නේ පිටතට නෙරා ඇති කර්ණිකාවෙන් හා ධ්වනි තරංග මැද කන වෙතට යොමු කරන බාහිර ශ්‍රවන නාලයෙනි.
ශ්‍රවන නාලයේ සිදුර මදක් ආවරණය කරන පේශිමය තැල්ල ට්‍රගසය (Tragus) නම් වේ. කර්ණිකාවේ පහත කොටසට අනුඛණ්ඩිකාව යයි කියති. බාහිර ශ්‍රවන නාලය (External Auditory Meatus ) අඟල් 1 1/4ක් පමණ දිගය. නාලයේ පිටත 1/3ක් සියුම් කෙස්වලින් අස්තරණය වී ඇත. එම කොටසේ ස්වේද ග්‍රන්ට්‍ ඉටි වැනි කලාඳුරු නම් නම් ශ්‍රරාවයක් හටගනි.මේ සියුම් කේස් හා කලඳුරු මගින් දුවිලි,ක්ෂුද්‍ර ජීවීන් වැනි දේ කන තුළට පිවිසිම වැළකේ. අධික වශයෙන් කලාඳුරු එක්රැස් වීමෙන් කන්බෙරය (Tympanic Membrance ) තෙරපෙයි. එවිට වෛද්‍යවරයකු ලවා එම කලාඳුරු ඉවත් කරවාගත යුතුය. මැද කනේ පියස්ස සෑදි ඇත්තෙ ඉතා සියුම් අස්ථි තහඩුවකිනි. මැද කන හරහා කුඩා ශ්‍රවණ අස්ථිකා (auditory Ossicles) පිහිටා ඇත.
ඒවා මුද්ගාරිකාව (Malleus ),නිඝාතිය (Incus) හා ධරණකය (Stapes) යන නම් වලින් හැදින්වේ.
මුද්ගාරිකාව කන් බෙරයේ ඇතුලු පැත්තට සවි වී තිබේ. එතැනින් පටන් ගන්නා අස්ථිකා දාමය කර්ණ පටහ කුහරය හරහා විරුද්ධ පැත්තේ බිත්තිය දෙසට යයි. මෙම බිත්තියේ කුඩා කවුළුවක් තිබෙන තිබෙන අතර එය අණ්‍ඩාකාර ගවාක්ෂයයි. මෙම කවුළුව තුළින්. අණ්ඩාකාර ගවාක්ෂයට ඇතුළතින් ආලින්දය (Vestbule) නම් වු මාධ්‍ය කුහරයක් තිබේ. මෙය උඩ පැත්තෙන් අර්ධ චක්‍රාකාර නාල තුනක් සමග සම්බන්ධ වේ.
බාහිර ශ්‍රවන නාලය ඔස්සේ ධ්‍‌වනි තරංග මැද කන වෙතට ළඟාවෙන අතර ඇතුළු කන වෙත ශබ්දය ගෙනයා හැකි ක්‍රම තුනක් තිබේ. ඉතා වැදගත් ක්‍රමය වන්නේ කන්බෙරය කම්‍පනය කිරීමයි. ජිවිත කාලය තළදි ශ්‍රවණ හැකියාව වටින් විට වෙනස් වේ. ස්නායු අන්ත උත්තේජනය (Enthusiam) වී ශ්‍රවණ ස්නායුව ඔස්සේ ස්නායු ආවේග (Neuro Impulse) මොලයට යයි. සාමාන්‍ය නීරෝගි කනකට තාරතාවේ (Pitch) වෙනස්කම් 1500ක් පමණ හදුනා ගත හැක. අධි ශබ්ද ප්‍රභේදයන්ට බලවේග (Power) යන්ත්‍ර, යානා හා ගුවන්යානා ශබ්ද, අධි සංගීත ශබ්ද යනාදිය ඇතුළත් වේ. කන් ඇසීම ආරක්ෂා කර ගනිමේ යෝග්‍යතම ක්‍රමය කන් ඇබ භාවිතා කරීමයි. සමහර සංගීත උත්සවවලදි Decibel එකක 100 ඉක්මවා යාම කර්ණ ආසාදනයට මුලික හේතුව වේ. මොළයේ සමහර කොටස්වලට හානි පැමිණිමෙන් සමතුලිකතාව නැතිවිමෙන් කෙලින් සිට ගැනිමේ හා ඇවිදීමේ හැකියා පරිහේ..

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